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1 Introduction 
2 Basic chemistry concepts 
3 Basic metallurgy concepts 
4 High temperature oxidation 
5 Corrosion in wet environments 
6 Materials and corrosion 
7 Corrosion in industry 
8 Corrosion study and control 
9 Electro-chemical Protection techniques 
10 Corrosion prevention 
11 Selection policy 
12 Corrosion expertise
13 Authors / copyright 

 

 

1 Introduction

1.1 What is corrosion ?

1.1.1 What is corrosion ?

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2 Basic chemistry concepts

2-1 General Chemistry

2.1.1 Constituents of matter
2.1.2 Periodic Classification of Elements
2.1.3 Lewis' Diagram
2.1.4 Definitions
2.1.5 Gibb's Free Energy (Free Enthalpy)
2.1.6 Faraday's Law

2.2 Solutions properties
2.2.1 General Points
2.2.2 Electrolytic Solutions

2.3 Oxido-reduction
2.3.1 Redox Pair
2.3.2 Equilibrium Potential - Nernst's Equation
2.3.3 Reactions - Classification

2.4 Notion of pH
2.4.1 Definition
2.4.2 Acids and Bases
2.4.3 PH Scale / pH Calculation
2.4.4 Repartition Diagram

2.5 Complexes / precipitation
2.5.1 Complexes
2.5.2 Precipitation

2.6 Matter balances
2.6.1 Matter balances

2.7 Heat balance
2.7.1 Heat balance

2.8 Characteristics of a fluid
2.8.1 Characteristics of a fluid

2.9 For further details
2.9.1 For further details

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3 Basic metallurgy concepts

3.1 Definition of a metal

3.1.1 Definition of a metal

3.2 Crystal and Crystalline State
3.2.1 Crystal and Crystalline State

3.3 Real crystal
3.3.1 Localised Defects
3.3.2 Iinear Imperfections
3.3.3 Bi-dimensional Imperfections

3.4 Diffusion

3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Microscopic Aspects
3.4.3 Macroscopic Aspects

3.5 Phase Transformation to Solid State
3.5.1 Phase Transformation to Solid State

3.6 Equilibrium Diagrams
3.6.1 Solid Solutions
3.6.2 Ordered Phases
3.6.3 Intermediate Phases
3.6.4 Binary equilibrium diagrams
3.6.5 Ternary equilibrium diagrams

3.7 Thermal treatments
3.7.1 Quenching
3.7.2 Tempering
3.7.3 Annealing
3.7.4 TTT diagrams

3.8 Plastic deformation
3.8.1 Hardening
3.8.2 Strain hardening
3.8.3 Creep
3.8.4 Fracture

3.9 Mechanical properties
3.9.1 Tensile and compression testing
3.9.2 Hardness
3.9.3 Impact strength
3.9.4 Fatigue

3.10 Brazing and soldering
3.10.1 General aspects
3.10.2 Microstructural consequences
3.10.3 Mechanical consequences
3.10.4 Protection of the base metal

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4 High temperature oxidation

4.1 General aspects

4.1.1 General aspects

4.2 Basic mechanisms

4.2.1 Thermodynamic aspects of oxidation
4.2.2 Surface reactions
4.2.3 What is an oxide?
4.2.4 The kinetics of oxidation
4.2.5 Principal parameters
4.2.6 Internal oxidation
4.2.7 Sress generation during oxidation
4.2.8 Influence of applied stresses and strains
4.2.9 Techniques for measuring stresses

4.3 Oxidation by species other than oxygen

4.3.1 Industrial atmospheres
4.3.2 Corrosion in carburizing atmospheres
4.3.3 Nitrogen corrosion
4.3.4 Corrosion by sulphur-containing atmospheres

4.4 Alloys for high temperature corrosion resistance
4.4.1 Effect of alloying elements
4.4.2 The principal families of common high temperature alloys

4.5 High temperature corrosion resistant coatings

4.5.1 The role of coatings
4.5.2 Corrosion resistance of coatings
4.5.3 Resistance of coatings to molten salt deposits
4.5.4 Selection criteria for high temperature coatings
4.5.5 Optimisation of coatings

4.6 Corrosion by molten salts

4.6.1 Physical properties
4.6.2 Physicochemical properties
4.6.3 Thermodynamic stability
4.6.4 Reference electrodes
4.6.5 Corrosion by molten salts
4.6.6 Corrosion by gases in the presence of molten salts
4.6.7 Protection against gaseous corrosion in the presence of molten salts

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5 Corrosion in wet environments

5.1 Electrochemical aspects

5.1.1 The unavoidable electrochemical aspects
5.1.2 The electrochemical nature of corrosion
5.1.3 Individual polarization curves
5.1.4 Electrochemical control of corrosion
5.1.5 The concept of oxidizing power
5.1.6 Dissolution of a bare metal
5.1.7 Chemical inertia
5.1.8 Passivity
5.1.9 Protective corrosion layers
5.1.10 Polarization in practice

5.2 Corrosion modes
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Uniform corrosion
5.2.3 Galvanic corrosion
5.2.4 Crevice corrosion
5.2.5 Pitting corrosion
5.2.6 Intergranular corrosion
5.2.7 Selective corrosion
5.2.8 Erosion/abrasion/and cavitation/corrosion
5.2.9 Fretting corrosion and tribocorrosion
5.2.10 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
5.2.11 Corrosion-fatigue
5.2.12 Hydrogen embrittlement

5.3 Bacterial corrosion
5.3.1 Origin of bacterial corrosion
5.3.2 Corrosive medium and micro-organisms
5.3.3 Rudiments of microbiology adapted to bacterial corrosion
5.3.4 Anti-bacterial treatments
5.3.5 Shift of usual corrosion resistance thresholds
5.3.6 Profound modifications to the corrosive medium
5.3.7 For further details

5.4 Corrosion in Water
5.4.1 What is Water?
5.4.2 Water Associated Disorders
5.4.3 Scaling
5.4.4 How can Water Become Corrosive?
5.4.5 Circuits Encountered
5.4.6 Metals and Alloys in Water
5.4.7 Water Analysis Chart
5.4.8 Treatments and Conditionings

5.5 Seawater Corrosion
5.5.1 What is Seawater?
5.5.2 Salinity and conductivity
5.5.3 Dissolved gases
5.5.4 Parameters to be controlled
5.5.5 Carbon steels and cast irons
5.5.6 Copper and copper alloys
5.5.7 Aluminium alloys
5.5.8 Other materials
5.5.9 Principal corrosion modes
5.5.10 Prevention and protection
5.5.11 For further details

5.6 Atmospheric Corrosion
5.6.1 Definition
5.6.2 Relative Humidity, Condensation, Fog, Rain, Sunniness
5.6.3 Pollutant Gases
5.6.4 Solid Pollutants
5.6.5 Morphology of Atmospheric Corrosion

5.7 Soil Corrosion
5.7.1 General aspects
5-7-2 Classification of soils
5-7-3 Methods of evaluating soil corrosiveness
5-7-4 Mechanism of soil corrosion
5-7-5 Soil corrosion of iron and steels
5-7-6 Soil corrosion of copper and its alloys
5-7-7 Corrosion of archaeological objects
5-7-8 For further details

5.8 Stray Current Corrosion
5.8.1 Stray Current Origin
5.8.2 Principle of Stray Current Corrosion
5.8.3 Some Examples of Stray Current Corrosion
5.8.4 Detection of Stray Currents
5.8.5 Ground Corrosiveness
5.8.6 Remedies

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6 Materials and corrosion

6.1 Cast Iron, Steel, Galvanized Steel

6.1.1 Iron, Steel, Cast Iron
6.1.2 Galvanized Steel

6.2 Alloyed steels

6.2.1 General aspects and nomenclature
6.2.2 Martensitic stainless steels
6.2.3 Ferritic stainless steels
6.2.4 Austenitic stainless steels
6.2.5 Duplex stainless steels
6.2.6 Precipitation hardening stainless steels

6.3 Copper and Cuprous
6.3.1 Copper and its Alloys
6.3.2 Uniform Corrosion
6.3.3 Crevice Corrosion
6.3.4 Pitting Corrosion of Type 1
6.3.5 Pitting Corrosion of Type 2
6.3.6 Other Types of Pitting Corrosions
6.3.7 Erosion - Corrosion
6.3.8 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
6.3.9 Selective Corrosion
6.3.10 Galvanic Corrosion
6.3.11 Ants Nest Corrosion
6.3.12 Other Forms of Corrosion

6.4 Aluminium and its alloys

6.4.1 Preamble
6.4.2 Nomenclature
6.4.3 Uniform corrosion
6.4.4 Pitting corrosion
6.4.5 Galvanic Corrosion
6.4.6 Filiform corrosion
6.4.7 Exfoliation corrosion
6.4.8 Intergranular corrosion
6.4.9 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
6.4.10 For further details

6.5 Nickel, base nickel
6.5.1 General information
6.5.2 Pure nickel: 200 and 300 series
6.5.3 Nickel alloys: 400 and 900 series
6.5.4 Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys
6.5.5 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys
6.5.6 Nickel-Chromium-Iron and Other Alloys

6.6 "Exotic" metals Ti, Ta and Zr
6.6.1 Introduction
6.6.2 Titanium and its alloys
6.6.3 Zirconium
6.6.4 Tantalium


6.7 Enamel and vitrified steel
6.7.1 Introduction: Enamels and enamelling
6.7.2 Chemical enamels
6.7.3 Corrosion resistance
6.7.4 Inhibition of the corrosion process
6.7.5 Advantages and limits of items made from vitrified steel
6.7.6 Immersion test procedure using vitrified steel samples
6.7.7 A few devices

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7 Corrosion in industry

7.1 Oil & gas production

7.1.1 Oil & gas production
7.1.2 Types of corrosion encountered
7.1.3 Use of coatings
7.1.4 Cathodic protection
7.1.5 The omnipresent role of in situ pH
7.1.6 The CO2 corrosion of steels
7.1.7 Internal corrosion: The H2S induced cracking of steels
7.1.8 Internal corrosion: the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels
7.1.9 Internal corrosion: microbial corrosion
7.1.10 Inhibition of steel corrosion
7.1.11 Internal corrosion: water injection circuits
7.1.12 Internal corrosion: erosion-corrosion

7.2 Oil refining
7.2.1 General aspects
7.2.2 Prevention of head corrosion in distillation units
7.2.3 High temperature sulphidation
7.2.4 Corrosion by naphthenic acids
7.2.5 Damage due to hydrogen gas
7.2.6 Hydrogen damage in aqueous media
7.2.7 Stress corrosion cracking problems
7.2.8 Corrosion by hot gases and fumes
7.2.9 Hydrofluoric acid
7.2.10 Other types of aqueous corrosion
7.2.11 Metallurgical damage
7.2.12 Mechanical damage

7.3 Fluid transport - Pipelines

7.3.1 Internal corrosion risks
7.3.2 Prevention and monitoring of internal corrosion
7.3.3 External corrosion risks
7.3.4 Prevention and monitoring of external corrosion
7.3.5 External inspection techniques
7.3.6 Internal inspection with "intelligent pigs"

7.4 Fluid storage (tanks)
7.4.1 Internal corrosion risks
7.4.2 Prevention and monitoring of internal corrosion
7.4.3 External corrosion risks
7.4.4 Prevention and monitoring of external corrosion
7.4.5 Detection and evaluation of damage
7.4.6 Corrosion control in fluid transport tanks

7.5 Aeronautical
7.5.1 Factors specific to aeronautical applications
7.5.2 The behaviour of stuctures
7.5.3 Types of corrosion encountered
7.5.4 Corrosion prevention techniques

7.6 PWR nuclear power plants
7.6.1 Introduction
7.6.2 Generalized corrosion of fuel rod claddings
7.6.3 Stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloys in water at high temperature
7.6.4 Wastage of non-alloy steels in the secondary system
7.6.5 Other cases of corrosion
7.6.6 Conclusion

7.7 Chemical industries
7.7.1 Introduction
7.7.2 Media
7.7.3 Material
7.7.4 Equipment
7.7.5 Working conditions
7.7.6 Processes
7.7.7 Corrosion under lagging

7.8 Automobile
7.8.1 Background
7.8.2 Auto Body - Paints
7.8.3 Bodywork - Accosting of Sheets
7.8.4 Mechanical and Removable Parts
7.8.5 Automobile Fluids
7.8.6 The Choice of Corrosion Protection

7.9 Construction
7.9.1 General considerations
7.9.2 Primary structures and buried elements
7.9.3 Corrosion of metals in concrete and plaster
7.9.4 Façades, roofing, metallic joinery and finishings, closures
7.9.5 Distribution of fluids (water, gases)

7.10 Heat exchangers
7.10.1 Uses of heat exchangers
7.10.2 Typical cases of corrosion in heat exchangers
7.10.3 Some recommendations
7-10-4 Recommendations to installers
7-10-5 Recommendations to users
7-10-6 For further details

7.11 Biomedical
7.11.1 Foreword
7.11.2 Metals in biomedecine
7.11.3 Environments
7.11.4 Galvanic corrosion
7.11.5 Fissure corrosion
7.11.6 Corrosion and biocompatibility
7.11.7 Advice
7.11.8 For further details

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8 Corrosion study and control

8.1 Electrochemical Methods

8.1.1 Laboratory Tests
8.1.2 Measurable Dimensions
8.1.3 Polarization Curves
8.1.4 Construction of the Polarization Curves
8.1.5 Interpretation of the Polarization Curves
8.1.6 Exploitation of the Polarization Curves
8.1.7 Polarization Resistance
8.1.8 Impedancemetery
8.1.9 On Site Monitoring
8.1.10 Advantages and Limits of Electrochemical Methods

8.2 Imagery
8.2.1 Optical Microscopy
8.2.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
8.2.3 Transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM)

8.3 Electrochemical Methods

8.3.1 Scanning electron microscopy (EDX or EDS analysis)
8.3.2 X-ray Induced Photoelectronic Spectrophotometry (XPS or ESCA)
8.3.3 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
8.3.4 Secondary Ions Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
8.3.5 Glow Discharge Optical Spectrometry (GDOS)
8.3.6 X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
8.3.7 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRFS)
8.3.8 Infra-red Absorption Spectrometry (IRAS)
8.3.9 Ellipsometry

8.4 Non-destructive tests
8.4.1 Acoustic emission
8.4.2 Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
8.4.3 Dye penetrant testing
8.4.4 Eddy Current
8.4.5 Radiography
8.4.6 Borescopy - Thermovision

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9 Electro-chemical Protection techniques


9.1 General aspects

9.1.1 General aspects
9.1.2 The basic principles of cathodic protection
9.1.3 A few words concerning anodic protection

9.2 Cathodic protection criteria
9.2.1 Plain carbon and low alloy steels
9.2.2 Concrete-coated steels
9.2.3 Stainless steels
9.2.4 Other metallic materials

9.3 Required cathodic protection current
9.3.1 Plain carbon and low alloy steels
9.3.2 Other metallic materials
9.3.3 Effects of coatings

9.4 Implementation of cathodic protection
9.4.1 Galvanic systems (sacrificial anodes)
9.4.2 Power-impressed systems (imposed current)
9.4.3 Advantages and disadvantages of the different systems
9.4.4 Mixed systems
9.4.5 Stray current drainage systems

9.5 Design of cathodic protection systems

9.5.1 General approach
9.5.2 Galvanic systems
9.5.3 Power-impressed systems

9.6 Principals applications
9.6.1 Buried pipelines
9.6.2 Other structures in contact with the ground
9.6.3 Harbour installations and offshore structures
9.6.4 Ships and other floating marine structures
9.6.5 Reinforced and prestressed concrete structures
9.6.6 Inside surfaces of vessels

9.7 Inspection techniques
9.7.1 General aspects - Necessary precautions
9.7.2 Measurements on buried structures
9.7.3 Buried pipelines
9.7.4 Measurements on immersed structures
9.7.5 Measurements inside vessels and equipment
9.7.6 Measurements on concrete structures

9.8 Limits of use and efficiency

9.8.1 Electrical continuity
9.8.2 Interference between different metallic structures
9.8.3 Harmful effects of cathodic protection

9.9 Standards and regulations
9.9.1 Standards
9.9.2 Professional documents
9.9.3 Certification of personnel
9.9.4 French regulations

9.10 Economic aspects
9.10.1 Economic aspects

9.11 For further details
9.11.1 For further details

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10 Corrosion prevention

10.1 Metallic Coatings
10.1.1 Objectives of Surface Coatings
10.1.2 Electrolytic Coatings
10.1.3 Chemical Plating
10.1.4 Physical Vapor Depositions (PVD)
10.1.5 Chemical Vapor Depositions (CVD)
10.1.6 Hot-dip Metal Coatings
10.1.7 Metal Spraying - Torch or Gun Spraying
10.1.8 High Energy Beam Deposition Processes
10.1.9 Miscellaneous Metallic Coatings

10.2 Anodizing Processes
10.2.1 Anodizing Processes (Anodic Oxidation)
10.2.2 Phosphating
10.2.3 Chromating and Other Processes

10.3 Structural transformation Treatments
10.3.1 Mechanical Method (shot peening, sand blasting)
10.3.2 Thermal processes

10.4 Diffusion Controlled Thermo-chemical Treatments
10.4.1 Metalloid Diffusion
10.4.2 Metal Diffusion

10.5 Future of Metallic Coatings
10.5.1 Future of Metallic Coatings

10.6 Paints
10.6.1 Surface Preparation
10.6.2 What is a Paint?
10.6.3 Paint System
10.6.4 Film Formation or Paint Films
10.6.5 Zinc Rich Paints (ZRP)
10.6.6 Precautionary Measurements to Apply Paints - Control
10.6.7 Main Problems Encountered
10.6.8 For further details

10.7 Special organic coatings
10.7.1 General aspects
10.7.2 Essential coating requirements
10.7.3 External coatings on buried or submerged pipelines
10.7.4 External coatings on buried storage tank
10.7.5 Coatings for the internal surfaces of vessels
10.7.6 Standards and Professional documents Certification - Regulations

10.8 Inhibitors
10.8.1 What is a Corrosion Inhibitor?
10.8.2 How Does a Corrosion Inhibitor Act?
10.8.3 A Bit of Electrochemistry!
10.8.4 Evaluation of Inhibitor Efficiency
10.8.5 Main Classes of Inhibitors
10.8.6 Organic Inhibitors
10.8.7 Mineral Inhibitors
10.8.8 Environmental Problems
10.8.9 On Site Utilization of Inhibitors

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11 Selection policy

11.1 Natural ranking of political, economic and technical considerations
11.1.1 Analysis of corrosion costs
11.1.2 The omnipresence of safety requirements
11.1.3 The omnipresence of a financial policy
11.1.4 Management of the unknown
11.1.5 Measurement of corrosion costs

11.2 The "hyper-choice" of bulk materials
11.2.1 Choice of a type of material
11.2.2 Choice of a family of materials
11.2.3 Choice of a grade of material
11.2.4 Management of the selection chain

11.3 The specific problem of coatings
11.3.1 Specific aspects of coatings
11.3.2 Coatings where technical considerations predominate
11.3.3 Coatings where economic considerations predominate
11.3.4 Interaction between coating, fabrication process and quality

11.4 For further details
11.4.1 For further details

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12 Corrosion expertise

12.1 Post-mortem diagnostic
12.1.1 The Role and Mission of the Expert
12.1.2 Objectives of the Expert's Report
12.1.3 Stages of the Expert Report
12.1.4 Establishing the Causes

12.2 The Expert's Working Kit
12.2.1 The Expert's Working Kit

12.3 What is an Expert System?
12.3.1 What is an Expert System?
12.3.2 Realization of an Expert System: Traps to Avoid
12.3.3 For further details

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13 Authors/copyright

13-1 Authors
13.1.1 Authors
13.1.2 Copyright



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